This year marks the 200th anniversary of Mary Ann Shadd Cary’s birthday (October 9, 1823–June 5, 1893). Shadd Cary was an antislavery activist, educator, and a trailblazing newspaper editor, journalist, and publisher of the newspaper, The Provincial Freeman. She was born in Delaware and grew up in Philadelphia. Shadd Cary moved to Canada West (Ontario) in 1851 and spent eleven years in the province (1851 - 1863). She had a huge impact on the lives of Black people at the time and left an unforgettable legacy.
Here are a variety of resources to learn more about Mary Ann Shadd Cary and to teach about her life and significance in classrooms.
Register here: https://www.toronto.ca/.../museums/mary-ann-shadd-cary/ [SOLD OUT]
Publications by Mary Ann Shadd Cary
Articles and other writings by Mary Ann Shadd Cary, The Black Abolitionist Archive in The Archive Research Center at The University of Detroit Mercy https://libraries.udmercy.edu/archives/special-collections/index.php?collectionCode=baa&field=DC_creator&term=%22Cary%2C+Mary+Ann+Shadd%2C+1823-1893%22
“Images from Archives of Ontario - F 1409 Mary Ann Shadd Cary Fonds,” Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Images_from_Archives_of_Ontario_–_F_1409_Mary_Ann_Shadd_Cary_fonds.
Library and Archives Canada online documents from the Mary Ann Shadd Cary Collection https://recherche-collection-search.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/Home/Search?DataSource=Archives%7CFonAndCol&SearchIn_1=PartOfEn&SearchInText_1=100441
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary” in the Black Abolitionist Papers Collection by ProQuest, (letters and articles by and to Mary Ann Shadd Cary), https://www.proquest.com/bap/results/BC3900E5BBBE4733PQ/1?accountid=15182
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary Collection” from Digital Howard at Howard University https://dh.howard.edu/mscary/
“Papers & Collections of Mary Ann Shadd Cary,” Black Women’s Organizing Archive https://bwoaproject.org/shadd-cary/papers-collections/
Mary Alice Downie, Barbara Robertson, Elizabeth Jane Errington & Mary Ann Shadd, The Canadian Climate Early Voices: Portraits of Canada by Women Writers, 1639-1914, Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2015.
Mary A. Shadd, A Plea for Emigration or Notes of Canada West, Canadiana https://www.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.47542/2
Mary Ann Shadd Cary, “A Bazaar in Toronto for Frederick Douglass’ Paper, &c. (1854),” in Documenting First Wave Feminisms Volume II: Canada - National and Transnational Contexts, Nancy M. Forestell and Maureen Moynagh eds., 77-79, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary, “The Colored People in Canada - Do They Need Help?” Liberator, March 4, 1843, https://www.proquest.com/docview/2522674026?accountid=15182&imgSeq=1&parentSessionId=EHVYFcwAqnxYJN9KdS%2FHthk33KsnNyXB6962mEJKBaw%3D&pq-origsite=primo.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary, “Lectures (1855),” in Documenting First Wave Feminisms Volume II: Canada - National and Transnational Contexts, Nancy M. Forestell and Maureen Moynagh eds., 79-80, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary to George Whipple, 27 November 1851,” in The Black Abolitionist Papers Volume II: Canada, 1830-1865, C. Peter Ripley ed., 184-185, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary to George Whipple, 28 December 1852,” in The Black Abolitionist Papers Volume II: Canada, 1830-1865, C. Peter Ripley ed., 245, 247-55, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary to Robert Hamilton, 17 September 1861,” in The Black Abolitionist Papers Volume II: Canada, 1830-1865, C. Peter Ripley ed., 452-57, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary, “Sermon by Mary Ann Shadd Cary [6 April 1858],” in The Black Abolitionist Papers Volume II: Canada, 1830-1865, C. Peter Ripley ed., 388-91, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary, A Plea for Emigration, or, Notes of Canada West, in Its Moral, Social, and Political Aspect, PDF digital copy from the Toronto Public Library, https://digitalarchive.tpl.ca/objects/345599
Mary Ann Shadd Cary, A Plea for Emigration, or, Notes of Canada West, Phanuel Antwi ed., Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2016, Toronto Public Library holding (reference and book), https://www.torontopubliclibrary.ca/detail.jsp?Entt=RDM3477439&R=3477439.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary, A Plea for Emigration, or, Notes of Canada West, Richard Almonte ed., Toronto: Mercury Press, 1998, Toronto Public Library holding (reference and book), https://www.torontopubliclibrary.ca/detail.jsp?Entt=RDM772172&R=772172.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary, A Plea for Emigration; or, Notes of Canada West, in Its Moral, Social, and Political Aspect: With Suggestions Respecting Mexico, West Indies, and Vancouver's Island, for the Information of Colored Emigrants, Detroit: Printed by George W. Pattison, 1852, Toronto Public Library holding (reference), https://www.torontopubliclibrary.ca/detail.jsp?Entt=RDM1949259&R=1949259.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary, A Plea for Emigration; or, Notes of Canada West, in Its Moral, Social, and Political Aspect: With Suggestions Respecting Mexico, West Indies, and Vancouver's Island, for the Information of Colored Emigrants, Detroit: G.W. Pattison, 1852, Toronto Public Library Microform (Toronto Reference Library), https://www.torontopubliclibrary.ca/detail.jsp?Entt=RDM659960&R=659960.
Digital copies of The Provincial Freeman and other Abolitionist newspapers that have articles by or mention Mary Ann Shadd Cary, Ontario Community Newspapers Portal, https://news.ourontario.ca/2817155/data?q=mary+ann+shadd+cary&st=kw&ID=OOI.2817155&bl=and&st=kw&grn=Abolitionist+Newspapers&grd=904.
The Provincial Freeman, 1855-1857, Toronto Public Library holdings (Toronto Reference Library): https://www.torontopubliclibrary.ca/detail.jsp?Entt=RDM2369949&R=2369949.
The Provincial Freeman (Windsor), INK - ODW Newspaper Collection, 1853-1857, http://ink.ourontario.ca/pf.
Henry Bibb, The Voice of the Fugitive, CRL Digital Delivery Systems, 1851-1852, https://dds-crl-edu.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/crldelivery/28146.
Alex L. Murray, The Provincial Freeman: A New Source for the History of the Negro in Canada, 1959.
Brad Asher, Cecelia and Fanny: The Remarkable Friendship Between an Escaped Slave and Her Former Mistress, Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2012.
Brigitte Fielder and Jonathan Senchyne eds., Against a Sharp White Background: Infrastructures of African American Print, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2019.
Carla L. Peterson, "Doers of the Word": African-American Women Speakers and Writers in the North (1830-1880), New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998.
Carolyn Calloway-Thomas, Mary Ann Shadd Cary: A Crusader for Cultural, Economic and Political Rights. Alexandria: Alexander Street, 2014. - published essay
Cynthia Sugars ed., Home-Work: Postcolonialism, Pedagogy, and Canadian Literature, Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2004. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1ckpc18.26.
Darlene Clark Hine ed., Black Women in America (2 ed.), Oxford University Press, 2005.
Deborah Willis, Ellyn Toscano, and Kalia Brooks Nelson eds., The North Atlantic and Indian Ocean Worlds in Women and Migration: Responses in Art and History, Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, 2019.
E.A. Heaman and David Tough eds., Who Pays for Canada?: Taxes and Fairness, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2020. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv176ktp8.10.
Franca Iacovetta, Paula Draper, and Robert Ventresca eds., A Nation of Immigrants: Women, Workers, and Communities in Canadian History, 1840s-1960s, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.
Gerald Hallowell ed., The Oxford Companion to Canadian History, Oxford University Press, 2004.
Hallie Q. Brown ed., Homespun Heroines and Other Women of Distinction, Hallie Q. Brown ed., New York: Oxford University Press, 1926.
Immi Tallgren ed., Portraits of Women in International Law: New Names and Forgotten Faces?, (draft, forthcoming OUP)
Jacqueline Jones Royster and Ann Marie Mann Simpkins eds., Calling Cards: Theory and Practice in the Study of Race, Gender, and Culture, Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005.
Jane Rhodes, Mary Ann Shadd Cary : The Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.
Jennifer Bernhardt Steadman, Traveling Economies: American Women's Travel Writing. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 2007.
Jeri Ferris, Demanding Justice : A Story About Mary Ann Shadd Cary, Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, 2003.
Jim Bearden and Linda Jean Butler, Shadd : the Life and Times of Mary Shadd Cary, Toronto: NC Press, 1977.
Joan Sangster, One Hundred Years of Struggle: The History of Women and the Vote in Canada, Vancouver: UBC Press, 2018.
Judith E. Harper, Women During the Civil War: An Encyclopedia, New York: Routledge, 2003.
Kathryn Kish Sklar and James Brewer Stewart eds., Women's Rights and Transatlantic Antislavery in the Era of Emancipation, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008. https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/10.12987/9780300137866-019.
Kathy Glass, Courting Communities: Black Female Nationalism and “Syncre-Nationalism” in the Nineteenth Century, New York: Routledge, 2013, https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/10.4324/9780203960523.
Kristen B. Waters and Carol B. Conaway eds., Black Women’s Intellectual Traditions: Speaking Their Minds, Hanover: University Press of New England, 2007.
Lana F. Rakow ed., Women Making Meaning: New Feminist Directions in Communication, London: Routledge, 2015.
Marcus Anthony Hunter and Zandria F. Robinson, Chocolate Cities: The Black Map of American Life, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2018, https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/10.1515/9780520966178.
Mary Ellen Snodgrass, The Underground Railroad: An Encyclopedia of People, Places, and Operations, New York: Routledge, 2008.
Merna Forster, 100 Canadian Heroines: Famous and Forgotten Faces, Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2004.
Moira Ferguson, Nine Black Women: An Anthology of Nineteenth-Century Writers from the United States, Canada, Bermuda and the Caribbean, New York: Routledge, 1998.
Nina Reid-Maroney, Wanda Thomas Bernard, and Boulou Ébanda de B’béri eds., Women in the “Promised Land” : Essays in African Canadian History, Toronto : Women’s Press, 2018.
Nneka D. Dennie, “Black Women and African Abolitionism,” in The Routledge Companion to Black Women’s Cultural Histories, Janell Hobson ed., New York: Routledge, 2021.
Nneka D. Dennie (ed.), Mary Ann Shadd Cary: Essential Writings of a Nineteenth Century Black Radical Feminist, Oxford University Press, 2023.
Peggy Bristow ed., We’re Rooted Here and They Can’t Pull Us Up, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994.
Rayford W. Logan and Michael R. Winston eds., Dictionary of American Negro Biography, New York: W.W. Norton, 1982.
Rodger Streitmatter, Raising Her Voice: African-American Women Journalists Who Changed History, Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1994.
Rosemary Sadlier, Mary Ann Shadd: Publisher, Editor, Teacher Lawyer, Suffragette, Toronto: Umbrella Press, 1995.
Sebastian N. Page, Black Resettlement and the American Civil War, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021, doi:10.1017/9781316493915.
Tiffany K. Wayne, Women’s Suffrage: The Complete Guide to the Nineteenth Amendment, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIC, 2020.
Tricia Williams Jackson, Women in Black History: Stories of Courage, Faith, and Resilience, Ada: Baker Publishing Group, 2015.
Wilfried Raussert ed., The Routledge Companion to Inter-American Studies, London: Routledge, 2017, https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/10.4324/9781315644981.
“Douglass Day Featuring Mary Ann Shadd Cary - A Co-Lab Challenge,” Library and Archives Canada Blog, February 14, 2023, https://thediscoverblog.com/2023/02/14/douglass-day-featuring-mary-ann-shadd-cary-a-co-lab-challenge/.
“Film: Mary Ann Shadd Revisited: Echoes from an Old House,” Active History, March 8, 2016, https://activehistory.ca/blog/2016/03/08/film-mary-ann-shadd-revisited-echoes-from-an-old-house/.
“Life Story: Mary Ann Shadd Cary (1823 - 1893),” New York Historical Society Museum & Library, accessed August 3, 2023, https://wams.nyhistory.org/expansions-and-inequalities/politics-and-society/mary-ann-shadd-cary/.
“Mary Ann Shadd,” Windsor Snapshots, accessed August 4, 2023, https://www.windsorsnapshots.com/mary-ann-shadd.
“Mary Ann Shadd (1823-1893),” University of Buffalo Department of Mathematics, accessed August 3, 2023, http://www.math.buffalo.edu/~sww/0history/cary_maryshadd.html.
“Mary Ann Shadd: Anti-Slavery Activist, Publisher,” Windsor Public Library, accessed August 3, 2023, https://www.windsorpubliclibrary.com/?page_id=15721.
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary,” canada.ca, accessed August 3, 2023, https://women-gender-equality.canada.ca/en/commemorations-celebrations/women-impact/human-rights/mary-ann-shadd-cary.html.
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary,” Digital Public Library of America, accessed August 3, 2023, https://blackwomenssuffrage.dp.la/key-figures/maryAnnShaddCary.
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary,” National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior, last updated July 8, 2019, https://www.nps.gov/people/mary-ann-shadd-cary.htm.
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary,” On the Shoulders of Giants, accessed August 4, 2023, https://www.ontheshoulders1.com/the-giants/mary-ann-shadd-cary#/.
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary House,” National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior, accessed August 3, 2023, https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/underground/dc2.htm.
Adrienne Shadd, “Mary Ann Shadd,” The Canadian Encyclopedia, last edited May 25, 2023, https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/mary-ann-shadd.
Adrienne Shadd, “Mary Ann Shadd,” Rella Black History Foundation, accessed August 3, 2023, https://www.rellablackhistoryfoundation.com/mary-ann-shadd.
Full article linked: https://www.rellablackhistoryfoundation.com/_files/ugd/a73e35_c069d6d5da3c47eab2149d4b7d076a16.pdf.
Adrienne Shadd, “The Provincial Freeman,” The Canadian Encyclopedia, June 7, 2023, https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/the-provincial-freema.
Allison Smith, “Reflections on ‘Mary Ann Shadd Revisited’,” Active History, accessed August 4, 2023, https://activehistory.ca/papers/reflections-on-mary-ann-shadd-revisited/.
Amy Carlberg, “Here’s Why a Portrait of a Black Woman Just Appeared on the Side of a Toronto Building,” blogTO, August 10, 2021, https://www.blogto.com/arts/2021/08/portrait-black-woman-appeared-side-toronto-building/.
Ashley Okwuosa, “How North America’s First Black Female Publisher Saw the ‘Road to Independence’,” TVO Today, October 9, 2020, https://www.tvo.org/article/how-north-americas-first-black-female-publisher-saw-the-road-to-independence.
Bill V., “Celebrating Mary Ann Shadd, Canada’s First Black Female Newspaper Publisher,” Toronto Public Library, October 8, 2021, https://torontopubliclibrary.typepad.com/arts_culture/2021/10/celebrating-mary-ann-shadd-canadas-first-black-and-female-newspaper-publisher-.html.
Carolyn Calloway-Thomas, “Cary, Mary Ann Shadd (b.9 October; d. 5 June 1893), Educator, Journalist, and Editor,” Oxford African American Studies Center, December 1, 2006, https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/10.1093/acref/9780195301731.013.44063.
Clifton H. Johnson, “Mary Ann Shadd: Crusader for the Freedom of Man,” Digital Howard @ Howard University, March 2020, https://dh.howard.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=mscary_bio.
Donovan Vincent, “Black History Month: Pioneering Black Publisher a Role Model Today,” Toronto Star, February 24, 2023, https://www.thestar.com/opinion/public-editor/black-history-month-pioneering-black-publisher-a-role-model-today/article_39d9466b-9cc2-5057-9642-72cc572a0afb.html.
Huda Hassan, “How Mary Ann Shadd Cary Set the Blueprint for Abolitionist Feminist Writing,” CBC, October 27, 2022, https://www.cbc.ca/arts/how-mary-ann-shadd-cary-set-the-blueprint-for-abolitionist-feminist-writing-1.6631709.
J.C. Brown and John Willis Menard, “A Mass Meeting of the Coloured People of Chatham, C.W.,” Toronto Globe, December 24, 1861, https://www.proquest.com/docview/2522676313?accountid=15182&parentSessionId=3CD3n%2FmoCIl0EkWYdfTMw%2FkoGNyLzHQ%2FHJve%2BYYaFUs%3D&pq-origsite=primo.
Jason H. Silverman, “Shadd, Mary Ann Camberton,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography, accessed August 3, 2023, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/shadd_mary_ann_camberton_12E.html.
Jennifer Davis, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary: Lawyer, Educator, Suffragist,” Library of Congress Blog, February 28, 2019, https://blogs.loc.gov/law/2019/02/mary-ann-shadd-cary-lawyer-educator-suffragist/.
Jennifer Davis and Neely Tucker, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary: Trailblazer for Feminism, Freedom,” Library of Congress Blogs, March 26, 2019, https://blogs.loc.gov/loc/2019/03/mary-ann-shadd-cary-trailblazer-for-feminism-freedom/.
Jone Johnson Lewis, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary,” ThoughtCo., updated November 8, 2020, https://www.thoughtco.com/mary-ann-shadd-cary-biography-3528271.
Kathy Alexander, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary - Activist, Teacher, & Writer,” Legends of America, updated November 2022, https://www.legendsofamerica.com/mary-ann-shadd-cary/.
Maggie, “Mary Ann Shadd,” History of American Women, July 7, 2006, https://www.womenhistoryblog.com/2006/07/mary-ann-shadd.html.
Megan Specia, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary: How One Woman Shook Up the Abolitionist Movement and Helped Define a New Role for Black Women,” The New York Times, July 2, 2018, https://www.proquest.com/docview/2611800885?accountid=15182.
Megan Specia, “Overlooked No More: How Mary Ann Shadd Cary Shook Up the Abolitionist Movement,” The New York Times, June 6, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/06/obituaries/mary-ann-shadd-cary-abolitionist-overlooked.html.
Marilyn Munch, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary Put Out the Word: Confront,” Investors Business Daily, February 2, 2010, https://web-p-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=37e7a471-5cf0-4000-a237-81f5f4429ca2%40redis&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=49168883&db=bth.
Mickey Maple, “Canadian History for Kids: Mary Ann Shadd,” Canadian History for Kids, February 12, 2014, https://www.canadianhistoryforkids.com/canadian-history-for-kids-mary-ann-shadd/.
Nava Atlas, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary,” Literary Ladies Guide: An Archive Dedicated to Classic Women Authors and Their Work, March 27, 2018 updated March 2, 2022, https://www.literaryladiesguide.com/trailblazing-journalists/mary-ann-shadd-cary/.
Rasha Mourtada, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary is Born: Moment in Time Oct. 9, 1823,” The Globe and Mail, October 9, 2021, https://www.proquest.com/docview/2580231639?accountid=15182.
Rmills9, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary,” First Wave Feminisms, December 3, 2019, https://sites.uw.edu/twomn347/2019/12/03/mary-ann-shadd-cary/.
School of Community Services, “Meet Mary Ann Shadd Cary: The Woman Who Made a Difference in Canadian Publishing,” Robertson College, February 17, 2021, https://www.robertsoncollege.com/news/school-of-community-services/mary-ann-shadd-cary/.
Shirley J. Yee, “Cary, Mary Ann Shadd (9 Oct. 1823 - 5 June 1893),” Oxford African American Studies Center, May 31, 2013, https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/10.1093/acref/9780195301731.013.34292.
Shirley Yee, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary (1823-1893),” Black Past, January 18, 2007, https://www.blackpast.org/global-african-history/people-global-african-history/cary-mary-ann-shadd-1823-1893/.
Todd Burroughs, “History of Black Media: The War Against ‘Isms’: Mary Ann Shadd Cary’s Battle to Overcome 19th Century Sexism,” Los Angeles Sentinel, March 25, 1999, https://www.proquest.com/docview/565798866/15F06996A3B246BBPQ/3?accountid=15182.
Alexander L. Murray, “The Provincial Freeman: A New Source for the History of the Negro in Canada and the United States,” The Journal of Negro History 44, no. 2 (1959): 123–35. https://doi.org/10.2307/2716034.
Avonie Brown, “Links and Lineage: The Life and Work of Mary Ann Shadd in Media, a Black Feminist Analysis,” MA Thesis, University of Windsor, 1994.
Bernell Elizabeth Tripp, “Black Women Journalists, 1825-1860,” PhD diss. (University of Alabama, 1993).
Bruce Dorsey, “A Gendered History of African Colonization in the Antebellum United States,” Journal of Social History 34, no. 1 (2000): 77–103, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3789511.
Carol B. Conaway, "Racially integrated education: the antebellum thought of Mary Ann Shadd Cary and Frederick Douglass," Vitae Scholasticae 27, no. 2 (2010): 86-104.
Carol B. Conaway, "Rhetorically constructed Africana mothering in the antebellum: the racial uplift tradition of Mary Ann Shadd Cary," Journal of Pan African Studies 2, no. 1 (2007): 4-18.
Carolyn Calloway-Thomas, “Mary Ann Shadd Cary: Crafting Black Culture Through Empirical and Moral Arguments,” Howard Journal of Communications 24, no. 3 (July 1, 2013): 239–56, doi:10.1080/10646175.2013.805978.
Cecilia Morgan, “‘Better Than Diamonds’: Sentimental Strategies and Middle-Class Culture in Canada West,” Journal of Canadian Studies 32, no. 4 (1997): 125–148.
Christian Olbey, “Unfolded Hands: Class Suicide and the Insurgent Intellectual Praxis of Mary Ann Shadd,” Canadian Review of American Studies 30, no. 2 (2000): 151–174.
Dann J. Broyld, “Harriet Tubman: Transnationalism and the Land of a Queen in the Late Antebellum,” Meridians 12, no. 2 (2014): 78–98, https://doi.org/10.2979/meridians.12.2.78.
Elizabeth J. Cali, “Unexpected Revolutionaries: Troubling Nineteenth-Century African American Feminist and Masculinist Nationalisms,” PhD diss. (University of Texas at San Antonio, 2014).
Franklin, V. P. “‘They Rose and Fell Together’: African American Educators and Community Leadership, 1795-1954,”The Journal of Education 172, no. 3 (1990): 39–64, http://www.jstor.org/stable/42742185.
Heike Paul, “Out of Chatham: Abolitionism on the Canadian Frontier,” Atlantic Studies 8, no. 2 (June 2011): 165–88, doi:10.1080/14788810.2011.563135.
James Oliver Horton, “Freedom’s Yoke: Gender Conventions among Antebellum Free Blacks,” Feminist Studies 12, no. 1 (1986): 51–76, https://doi.org/10.2307/3177983.
Jane Rhodes, “The Contestation Over National Identity: Nineteenth-Century Black Americans in Canada,” Canadian Review of American Studies/Revue Canadienne d’Etudes Américaines 30, no.2 (2000): 175–86. doi:10.3138/cras-s030-02-04.
Jane Rhodes, “Race, Money, Politics and the Antebellum Black Press,” Journalism History 20, no. 3-4 (1994): 95–106.
Jason H. Silverman, “Notes and Comments: ‘We Shall Be Heard!’: The Development of the Fugitive Slave Press in Canada,”Canadian Historical Review 65, no. 1 (1984): 54–69.
Jennifer Bernhardt Steadman, “Travel Writing and Resistance: A Feminist Reading of Travel Narratives by African American and Euro-American Women, 1820–1860,” PhD diss. (Emory University, 2000).
Jennifer Harris, “Peter Susand, Lost Texts, and Black Canadian Literary Culture of the 1850s,” Canadian literature 236 (2018): 15–32.
Kabria Baumgartner, “Intellect, Liberty, Life: Women’s Activism and the Politics of Black Education in Antebellum America,” PhD diss. (University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2011).
Karleigh R. Kochaniec, “Intersectionality in the Lives and Works of Mary Ann Shadd and Henry Bibb,” The Great Lakes Journal of Undergraduate History 8, no. 1 (2022): 42-52.
Kristin Moriah, “‘A Greater Compass of Voice’: Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield and Mary Ann Shadd Cary Navigate Black Performance,” Theatre Research in Canada 41, no. 1 (2020): 20–38, https://doi.org/10.3138/tric.41.1.20.
Lindal Buchanan, “Forging and Firing Thunderbolts: Collaboration and Women’s Rhetoric,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 33, no. 4 (2003): 43–63, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3886250.
Lorene Bridgen, “On Their Own Terms: Temperance in Southern Ontario’s Black Community (1830-1860),” Ontario History 101, no. 1 (November 2019): 64–82, doi:10.7202/1065675ar.
Ma del Rosario Piqueras Fraile, “Self-Reliance is the True Road to Independence: Freedom and Independence in Mary Ann Shadd’s Writings,” ES. Revista de Filología Inglesa 34 (2013): 227-44.
Margaret Washington, “Frances Ellen Watkins: Family Legacy and Antebellum Activism,” The Journal of African American History 100, no. 1 (2015): 59–86, https://doi.org/10.5323/jafriamerhist.100.1.0059.
Nneka D. Dennie, “‘Leave That Slavery-Cursed Republic’: Mary Ann Shadd Cary and Black Feminist Nationalism, 1852–1874,” Atlantic Studies 18, no. 4 (October 2, 2021): 478–93, doi:10.1080/14788810.2020.1799707.
Nora Darlene Hall, “On Being an African-American Woman: Gender and Race in the Writings of Six Black Women Journalists, 1849-1936,” PhD diss. (University of Minnesota, 1998).
Rinaldo Walcott, “‘Who Is She and What Is She to You?’: Mary Ann Shadd Cary and the (Im)Possibility of Black/Canadian Studies,” Atlantis 24, no. 2 (2000): 137–46.
Shirley J. Yee, “Finding a Place: Mary Ann Shadd Cary and the Dilemmas of Black Migration to Canada, 1850-1870,” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 18, no. 3 (1997): 1–16, https://doi.org/10.2307/3347171.
Shirley J. Yee, “Gender Ideology and Black Women as Community-Builders in Ontario, 1850–70,” The Canadian Historical Review 75, no. 1 (1994): 53–73, https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/10.3138/CHR-075-01-03.
Tom Huntington, “Escape from Harpers Ferry: Osborne Anderson and the Aftermath of Insurrection,” American History 52, no. 1 (April 2017): 42–50.
A Scattering of Seeds. Episode 5, Breaking the Ice the Mary Ann Shadd Story, White Pine Pictures, 2001, 30min, https://www.torontopubliclibrary.ca/detail.jsp?Entt=RDM2722856&R=2722856.
Mary Ann Shadd, Rella Black History Foundation, 2019, 2:42min, https://youtu.be/WNiFNvXZ9ws.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary Literary Pioneer, On the Shoulders of Giants, 2018, 6:15min, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VfncrUgWWUs.
Mary Ann Shadd Revisited: Echoes from an Old House, ActiveHistory.ca, 2016, 27:21min, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uGH0m3NChM0.
Online Resources (exhibits, podcasts, etc.)
“Black History Month,” City of Toronto (Black History Month 2023 program), https://www.toronto.ca/explore-enjoy/history-art-culture/black-history-month/.
“Mary Ann Shad Cary” online entry of names in “the Dinner Party” art piece in the Brooklyn Museum https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/dinner_party/heritage_floor/mary_ann_shad_cary.
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary” in the exhibition “The Fight for Black Mobility: Traveling to Mid-Century Conventions” by Coloured Conventions Project https://coloredconventions.org/black-mobility/delegates/mary-ann-shadd-cary/.
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary,” online Ontario Black History Exhibit, https://vitacollections.ca/multiculturalontario/476/exhibit/10.
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary,” short video, podcast, and show notes by Natasha at Noire Histoir, January 2020, http://noirehistoir.com/blog/mary-ann-shadd-cary/.
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary 1823-1893,” Read the Plaque (text of plaque located in Toronto) https://readtheplaque.com/plaque/mary-ann-shadd-cary-1823-1893.
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary 1823-1893,” Ontario Heritage Trust (text of plaque located at the J.G. Taylor Community Centre, Chatham), https://www.heritagetrust.on.ca/plaques/mary-ann-shadd-cary-1823-1893.
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary 1823-1893,” Ontario’s Historical Plaques (text of plaque located outside the Woodstock Institute Sertoma Help Centre at 177 King Street East, west of Princess Street, Chatham) https://www.ontarioplaques.com/Plaques/Plaque_ChathamKent12.html.
Mary Ann Shadd: Journalism, Activism, and the Power of Words | Strong and Free | Episode 4 (podcast), Historica Canada, 2021, 33min, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JmXYa3YdpKU.
“The Provincial Freeman,” online Ontario Black History Exhibit, https://vitacollections.ca/multiculturalontario/exhibit.asp?id=476&PID=11.
“The Provincial Freeman,” Ontario Heritage Trust (text and historical background of plaque located at the W.I.S.H. Centre, Chatham, Ontario), https://www.heritagetrust.on.ca/pages/programs/provincial-plaque-program/provincial-plaque-background-papers/provincial-freeman.
“Shadd, Mary Ann National Historical Person” Parks Canada Directory of Federal Heritage Designations - Plaque at 177 King Street East, Chatham, Ontario, designated as a national historic person on November 24, 1994, https://www.pc.gc.ca/apps/dfhd/page_nhs_eng.aspx?id=1705 or https://parks.canada.ca/culture/designation/personnage-person/mary-ann-shadd.
Sources in French
“Mary Ann Shadd Cary: Vedette de la Journée Douglass et de Notre Défi Co-Lab,” Le Blogue de Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, 14 Février, 2023, https://ledecoublogue.com/2023/02/14/mary-ann-shadd-cary-vedette-de-la-journee-douglass-et-de-notre-defi-co-lab/.
Boulou Ebanda de B'béri. "La ‘Black Press’ Canadienne du 19ème Siècle: Racines et Trajectoires des Pratiques Communicationnelles et d'un Activisme Intellectuel Exceptionnels Gommés dans Nos Études en Communication." Global Media Journal 8, no. 2 (2015): 15-23.
Suzanne B. Spring, “Réflexions sur la Valeur de la Liberté : Mary Ann Shadd, la Conscience Anti-EEsclavagiste et la Fonction de la Lettre Ouverte,” Argumentation & Analyse du Discours 5, no. 5 (2010): 1-16, https://doi.org/10.4000/aad.1004.
Winfried Siemerling, Les Écritures Noires Du Canada: L’Atlantique Noir et La Présence Du Passé, trans. Patricia Godbout, Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2022, https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv2xszr4x.7.
Celebrating Black History Month is a tradition. Black History Month grew out of Negro History Week. It was founded in 1926 by African American historian Dr. Carter G. Woodson, who dedicated his career to the study and documentation of Black life. It was a scholarly and educational intervention to counter the racist representation and erasure of African Americans in American history that contributed to their disenfranchisement and the miseducation of Black people about their past through the white gaze.
BLACK HISTORY TOPICS FOR GRADES 7 and 8
BLACK HISTORY TOPICS FOR GRADES 10-12